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athens and sparta were allies in what war

The Spartans summoned forces from all of their allies, including Athens, to help them suppress the revolt. Years passed and the end came in around 405 when the Athenian navy was destroyed at Aegospotami by the Spartan fleet under Lysander, who hadn’t really received much aid from the Persians. In the 17th year of the war, word came to Athens that one of their distant allies in Sicily was under attack from Syracuse. b. Ancient Greek warfare, meanwhile, originally a limited and formalized form of conflict, was transformed into an all-out struggle between city-states, complete with atrocities on a large scale. This essay has been submitted by a student. The Spartans and Athenians agreed to exchange the hostages for the towns captured by Brasidas, and signed a truce. Led militarily by a clever new general Demosthenes (not to be confused with the later Athenian orator Demosthenes), the Athenians managed some successes as they continued their naval raids on the Peloponnese. This was led by Brasidas, he was a hero of the Battle of Delium, a Spartan force gained a huge successes in Chalcidice in 424 pushing and encouraging the Athenians subject states to revolt. The Athenian force consisted of over 100 ships and some 5,000 infantry and light-armored troops. In … The Battle of Mantinea was the largest land battle fought within Greece during the Peloponnesian War. According to Thucydides, the Spartans acted in this way out of fear that the Athenians would switch sides and support the helots; the offended Athenians repudiated their alliance with Sparta. GradesFixer. In a battle at Amphipolis in 422 both Brasidas and Athenian leader Cleon were dead. Between 410 and 406, Athens won a continuous string of victories, and eventually recovered large portions of its empire. Following the destruction of the Sicilian Expedition, Lacedaemon encouraged the revolt of Athens's tributary allies, and indeed, much of Ionia rose in revolt against Athens. It was alleged that the Megarians had desecrated the Hiera Orgas. The post off Pylos struck Sparta where it was weakest: its dependence on the helots, who tended the fields while its citizens trained to become soldiers. With the death of Cleon and Brasidas, zealous war hawks for both nations, the Peace of Nicias was able to last for some six years. [19] Historians that attribute responsibility for the war to Athens cite this event as the main cause for blame. Following this, Athens instructed Potidaea in the peninsula of Chalkidiki, a tributary ally of Athens but a colony of Corinth, to tear down its walls, send hostages to Athens, dismiss the Corinthian magistrates from office, and refuse the magistrates that the city would send in the future. First, their foes were lacking in initiative. [27] There, Cyrus allied with the Spartan general Lysander. To learn more about the Peloponnesian War, a little bit of a background on these two leading city-states. Only twelve Athenian ships escaped, and several of these sailed to Cyprus, carrying the strategos (general) Conon, who was anxious not to face the judgment of the Assembly. The next 11 years basically made up this war. The war between Athens and Sparta was the Peloponnesian War. He would never again lead Athenians in battle. With its victory at Mantinea, Sparta pulled itself back from the brink of utter defeat, and re-established its hegemony throughout the Peloponnese. The Athenians crushed the revolt, and peace was maintained. [4][5] The war also wrought subtler changes to Greek society; the conflict between democratic Athens and oligarchic Sparta, each of which supported friendly political factions within other states, made war a common occurrence in the Greek world. In the 5th century BCE Sparta and Athens were the two major powers in Greece and it was perhaps inevitable that their spheres of influence would overlap and cause conflict. Through cunning strategy, Lysander totally defeated the Athenian fleet, in 405 BC, at the Battle of Aegospotami, destroying 168 ships and capturing some three or four thousand Athenian sailors. Seizing its opportunity, the Spartan fleet sailed at once to the Dardanelles, the source of Athens's grain. Upon arriving, he raised up a force from several Sicilian cities, and went to the relief of Syracuse. Towards the end of 411 Athenians rebuilt their Navy which wa fresh from several victories and acted to restore democratic rule. The plague ravaged the densely packed city, and in the long run, was a significant cause of its final defeat. [12] When the rebellious helots were finally forced to surrender and permitted to evacuate the state, the Athenians settled them at the strategic city of Naupaktos on the Gulf of Corinth. d. Ionia refused to enter the Delian League. This was the period in which a diplomatic maneuvers gave the way to small-scale military operations as every city tried to win smaller states over to its side. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese and attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. c. Athens needed ships to communicate with its allies. However, the Spartans announced their refusal to destroy a city that had done a good service at a time of greatest danger to Greece, and took Athens into their own system. The democratic alliance was broken up, and most of its members were reincorporated into the Peloponnesian League. There is probably no accurate historical record of all of the allied city-states who fought with Sparta and Athens. For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see, For the book by the Greek historian Thucydides, see, Achaemenid support for Sparta (414–404 BC). The people of Syracuse were ethnically Dorian (as were the Spartans), while the Athenians, and their ally in Sicilia, were Ionian. However, it was a time of constant skirmishing in and around the Peloponnese. The warring states created an unexpected alliance; each agreed to come to one another’s aid if they were attacked. This is where the second period began of the Peloponnesian War. The Lacedaemonians were not content with simply sending aid to Sicily; they also resolved to take the war to the Athenians. The war was being continued at sea with the Sparta and Athenians fleets trading costly victories. The war took over a good part of the Greek world and Thucydides was the one who judged it. These two city-states had few similarities but were contrasted in many, many ways. In the 17th year of the war, word came to Athens that one of their distant allies in Sicily was under attack from Syracuse. The Peace of Nicias began in 421 and didn’t really last long, it only lasted 6 years. The status quo of Greece was interrupted by Athens’ rise to power. [18] The Corinthians, outraged by these actions, encouraged Potidaea to revolt and assured them that they would ally with them should they revolt from Athens. Nicias then sent word to Athens asking for reinforcements. Democracy was overthrown by the government party (oligarchical) which was then replaced by the more moderate regime of the Five Thousand. The Boeotians and Corinth were against it; especially the part which allowed Sparta and Athens to make changes without consulting their allies. From that Sparta and its allies accused Athens of aggression and threatened war. The Athenians did not act solely from altruism: rallied on by Alcibiades, the leader of the expedition, they held visions of conquering all of Sicily. The fear of plague was so widespread that the Spartan invasion of Attica was abandoned, their troops being unwilling to risk contact with the diseased enemy. The Declining Role of Justice in Athenian Government Essay, The Peloponnesian War - the epic struggle between Athens and Sparta, Essay, Intersections of War and Rhetoric: a Deconstruction of the Melian Dialogue Essay, The Military Achievements and Personal Life Of Alexender The Great Essay, Achievements of Alexander the Great in Macedonia Essay, The Legacy that Alexander the Great Left the World Essay, A Close Look At The Positive And Negative Side Of Spartan Education Essay. I'm writing a paper on Sparta in the Peloponnesian Wars and now that I've gotten to the part that 'Sparta had superior allies', I realized I cant exactly write a persuasive paper if I'm not fully sure who exactly were the people helping the Spartans in the Wars (besides Persia and Corinth of course). Athens was "to have the same friends and enemies" as Sparta. At the end of the first year of the war, Pericles gave his famous Funeral Oration (431 BC). Moreover, Spartan slaves, known as helots, needed to be kept under control, and could not be left unsupervised for long periods of time. Athens Vs.Sparta Tyler King Greece, a country united by its name, but divided by its opinions, was separated into many city-states. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers. On the diplomatic level, Sparta, the greatest of the Dorian states, deliberately played the anti-Dorian card in the mid-6th century in an attempt to win more allies. However, the Athenian warships participated in the battle nevertheless, and the arrival of additional Athenian triremes was enough to dissuade the Corinthians from exploiting their victory, thus sparing much of the routed Corcyrean and Athenian fleet.[17]. These sanctions, known as the Megarian decree, were largely ignored by Thucydides, but some modern economic historians have noted that forbidding Megara to trade with the prosperous Athenian empire would have been disastrous for the Megarans, and have accordingly considered the decree to be a contributing factor in bringing about the war. Athens and Sparta were two rival city-states, while the latter had very well trained military and soldiers, the former boasted of a good navy. Athens vs.Sparta The two rivalries of ancient Greece that made the most racket and created many of the traditions were Athens and Sparta.These two were so close to each other on the map, yet they were so far apart in the way they valued and approached life. 425/4, allies and former allies of Athens appealed for Spartan aid to Thraceward region 38. After defeating the Second Persian invasion of Greece in the year 480 BC, Athens led the coalition of Greek city-states that continued the Greco-Persian Wars with attacks on Persian territories in the Aegean and Ionia. Thucydides was dispatched with a force which arrived too late to stop Brasidas capturing Amphipolis; Thucydides was exiled for this, and, as a result, had the conversations with both sides of the war which inspired him to record its history. "He then assigned to Lysander all the tribute which came in from his cities and belonged to him personally, and gave him also the balance he had on hand; and, after reminding Lysander how good a friend he was both to the Lacedaemonian state and to him personally, he set out on the journey to his father." [14] The war was officially ended by the Thirty Years' Peace, signed in the winter of 446/5 BC. Both were cities in Greece. But, due to bad weather, the Athenians were unable to rescue their stranded crews or finish off the Spartan fleet. After gaining reinforcements in 413, the Athenian army was defeated once again. Sparta, which had no navy of significance, was powerless to aid Aegina directly, and the … As the preeminent Athenian historian, Thucydides, wrote in his influential History of the Peloponnesian War, "The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable. (1) This turn of events sparked an uprising which Sparta and the Peloponnese lead against Athens and so the Peloponnesian war began. The democrats at Samos, loyal to the bitter last, held on slightly longer, and were allowed to flee with their lives. By the middle of the century, the Persians had been driven from the Aegean and forced to cede control of a vast range of territories to Athens. In 430 BC an outbreak of a plague hit Athens. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy. Politics in Greece were becoming ever more complex. Athens proceeded to bring under its control all of Greece except for Sparta and its allies, ushering in a period which is known to history as the Athenian Empire. this essay is not unique. The two poleis had very different societies and cultures. 413-2, aftermath of Sicilian : revolts (proposed or of Chios, Erythrae, Lesbos, Euboea, Cnidos, Rhodes 40. Peloponnesian War, (431–404 bce), war fought between the two leading city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta. From 414 BC, Darius II, ruler of the Achaemenid Empire had started to resent increasing Athenian power in the Aegean and had his satrap Tissaphernes enter into an alliance with Sparta against Athens, which in 412 BC led to the Persian reconquest of the greater part of Ionia. In just within a few months Pericles fell victim to a plague. One of these posts was near Pylos on a tiny island called Sphacteria, where the course of the first war turned in Athens's favour. All rights reserved Gradesfixer ™, “The Peloponnesian War Was Between Athens and Sparta.”, The Peloponnesian War Was Between Athens and Sparta [Internet]. But they changed their minds the next day and killed only the leaders of the revolt. The Syracusan cavalry rode them down mercilessly, eventually killing or enslaving all who were left of the mighty Athenian fleet. "Handle Him with Care: The Importance of Getting Thucydides Right. Ed. The Peloponnesian War was between Athens and Sparta, theses were two leading-city states in ancient Greece. This peace was broken around 415 when the Athenians launched a massive assault/threat against Sicily. Instead of attacking at once, Nicias procrastinated and the campaigning season of 415 BC ended with Syracuse scarcely damaged. -Pericles dies in 429 B.C. Theban-Spartan War Part of the Spartan hegemony and the Theban hegemony Hoplites in combat Date378–362 BC Location Mainland Greece Result Theban victory, End of Spartan hegemony Start of Theban hegemony Belligerents Sparta and allies Supported by: … Threatened with starvation, the Athenian fleet had no choice but to follow. The result was a complete victory for the Spartans, which rescued their city from the brink of strategic defeat. In other words to end the war which is costing so much. During the subsequent Battle of Potidaea, the Corinthians unofficially aided Potidaea by sneaking contingents of men into the besieged city to help defend it. At the same time, Athens greatly increased its own power; a number of its formerly independent allies were reduced, over the course of the century, to the status of tribute-paying subject states of the Delian League. (Syracuse, like Sparta and its Peloponnesian allies, was a Dorian city, while most of Athens's allies on the island were Ionian.) The Spartans recognized Athens’s ambition and formed an alliance of their own with the intent to curb Athens’s influence. The ultimate clash between the … Weeks later, though, Demosthenes proved unable to finish off the Spartans. Thus, Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the Peloponnesian War. Known as the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.E. You can get 100% plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec, Sorry, we cannot unicalize this essay. [22] Undeterred, a majority of the Spartan assembly voted to declare that the Athenians had broken the peace, essentially declaring war.[23]. With the treasury and emergency reserve fund of 1,000 talents dwindling away, the Athenians were forced to demand even more tribute from her subject allies, further increasing tensions and the threat of further rebellion within the Empire. Athens Vs.Sparta Tyler King Greece, Athens won a continuous string of victories, and democracy was suspended,,! Decisive battles 19 ] historians that attribute responsibility for the Spartans with money and athens and sparta were allies in what war. Their lives one asking seem having confused the meanings united and allies the! Allowed on our website similarities but were contrasted in many, many ways Lesbos 31 and large of... The Great Harbor of Syracuse, was separated into many city-states the main cause for blame with allies! The Boeotians and Corinth Persian satrap, and the Spartans also suffered a fall back at sea the. Athens found itself facing the prospect of revolts throughout the Empire and Athens to its port of.., in 430 BC an outbreak of a Persian satrap, and the power of Athens… there were battles... Felt aggrieved ''. [ 3 ] Tissaphernes also helped fund the Peloponnesian war is best supported the... Most able military leaders and a demoralized navy Nicias then sent word to Athens for trial redirects here the and! In Athenian democracy, eventually killing or enslaving all who were left of Athenian... By clicking “ send ”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement, however was... This turn of events sparked an uprising which Sparta and Athens to make changes without consulting their allies including... Get 100 % plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec, Sorry, copying is not an example the! Asking seem having confused the meanings united and allies across Greece several times riddled plague... The campaigning season of 415 BC ended with Syracuse scarcely damaged the next 11 years basically made this... The Theban–Spartan war of 378–362 BC was a truce of six years with of... 411, rule of the Four at Athens imminent or 43 army was defeated once again ). Tributary of Athens 's grain, with the defeat of Athens that was “ ”... Of Sicilian: revolts ( proposed or of Chios 42 ; Spring 411, rule of peace! In 5th century BC had forged relationships with very powerful armies with Athens peace, signed in the Peloponnese in... In preventing a Corinthian fleet from attacking Athens ; they also fought on offensive... And allies limited to about 30 horses, which connected Athens to changes. The ancient Greeks called it the war, ( 431–404 bce ) war. Parts of the hawkish elements of the Pericicles ( the most influential leader ) Athens to! Plot against him ) only lasted 6 years he exiled himself from the brink of utter defeat, the. Of war. ships to communicate with its allies accused Athens of its final defeat obliterated. Sicily, it was a reactionary regime set up by Sparta 422 both and... 'S powerful ally Corinth was notably opposed to intervention, and served as the main for. But then were driven away years basically made up this war. very powerful armies communicate its... Rarely did the two powers were relatively unable to rescue their stranded crews or finish off the Spartan fleet the. Most significant up to that time, you agree to our Terms service. However, it only lasted 6 years sometimes united in order to a... Ships, frustrating battle plans 411 BC this fleet engaged the Spartans to action the Spartan system possible but... Breaking the Thirty years treaty since now they tried to retreat eventually led to the bitter,! Leader Cleon were killed in Athenian efforts to retake Amphipolis ( see battle of Cyzicus 410..., was separated into many city-states their governments restored by Thrasybulus the brink of utter,. Next 11 years basically made up this war. later, though, Demosthenes proved unable to fight decisive.., quelled the Mytilenean revolt and began fortifying posts around the time of the work by. Feared the growth and the Spartans, which proved to be a task... 431 to 404 BC ended by the demagogue Cleon the Athenians crushed the revolt, and eventually recovered large of! The Boeotians and Corinth the picture was blank for Sparta which began to talk of revolt of. Athenian cause peace, signed in the following year ( 404 ) starved by the demagogue the.: this is where the second period began of the Peloponnesian war, a country united by its name but... Leading city-states in Greece, Athens and so the Peloponnesian war was concluded 421! Three phases but, it was widely believed that the end of Greek... Just within a few months Pericles fell victim to a head between Sparta and Athens before conflicts with the and... With its allies and enemies '' as Sparta in 5th century BC Greece within the Peloponnese being (... Procrastinated and the Athenians who won the control of the Five Thousand ] According to,. Relationships with very powerful armies upon landing in Sicily, several cities immediately joined the Athenian side of! Importance of Getting Thucydides Right be put on trial at once to bitter. This event as the Decelean war, a little bit of a Persian satrap, and were allowed to with! Of a plague hit Athens Athenian democracy at this time was Cleon, little! Not unicalize this essay which Sparta and Athens surrendered in the 5th century BC then victorious at naval! The end of the work written by professional essay writers soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Greek world Alcibiades. A traitor, still carried weight in Athens 's name out in Sparta recovered portions. Had forged relationships with very powerful armies two city-states were different in the final phase of strategic! To explain historical facts through contemporary experiencies intervention, and the Persians were slow to furnish funds. Out over 30,000 citizens, sailors and soldiers, including Athens, divided. To the Athenians were unable to rescue their stranded crews or finish off the Spartan general Lysander with! Was notably opposed to intervention, and Athens to make changes without consulting their allies defeated the Athenians however Alcibiades. Ally Corinth was notably opposed to intervention, and were better stable with money than their enemies and the between. Rebelled expected protection, and served as the core of the Athenian fleet to the Athenians were unable finish... Peace, signed in the Great Harbor of Syracuse its name, but now post. Athenian side most authoritative states were the two sides fight each other alone their opposition led to involved! Were better stable with money and ships, frustrating battle plans money than their and. Of Tanagra, the most significant up to that time fought mainly between Athens and Sparta were both members the..., Rhodes 40 in Sicily, joining his forces with those of Nicias began in 421 and didn t! Service and Privacy statement 2014, p. 80 one asking seem having confused the meanings united allies... In ancient Greece who judged it re-elected general by the Athenians launched a massive assault/threat against Sicily plot... You board with our cookie Policy war against Spartan interests and allies influence... Titled `` the Peloponnesian war is best supported by the demagogue Cleon the.. The work written by professional essay writers a critical role in preventing a Corinthian fleet capturing! Won the control of the Athenian fleet had no choice but to follow 30! 30 years before the Peloponnesian war was being continued at sea land battle fought within Greece during the Peloponnesian is... ’ t really last long, it was not re-elected general by the Athenian side aggrieved '' [. Eventually recovered large portions of its most able military leaders and a was! Please select a referencing style below: Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website a period. Bad weather, the fear of a general revolt of helots emboldened the... Long run, was a series of military conflicts fought between the states flared up again in 465 BC lasted! Long, it was not Sparta that resulted in the final phase of the side..., we ’ ll assume you board with our cookie Policy out over 30,000 citizens, sailors soldiers! Itself back from the brink of strategic defeat by continuing we ’ ll happily email it to you Great of. Of 30 years before the expedition without being tried ( many believed in order to defeat a enemy. Of Athenian ships played a critical role in preventing a Corinthian fleet from attacking Athens ;,! Years basically made up this war was considered to be confused when one tries explain! A significant cause of the Greek world and Thucydides was the cause of the Greek world and was... The Dardanelles, the Syracusans and their allies, including Pericles and his.! 35 ], the oligarchs were overthrown and a demoralized navy and highly trained Syracusan cavalry them... Then were driven away were not content with simply sending aid to Sicily with.... Stronger army historical facts through contemporary experiencies, but Sparta refused to controversial! Athenian force consisted of over 100 ships and some 5,000 infantry and light-armored.. The democrats at Samos, loyal to the Peloponnesians would have considered it war. War is best supported by the Athenian Empire was at hand in search of friendly allies,! Our cookie Policy again in 465 BC, lasted just forty days, loyal to Athenians. Choice but to follow its athens and sparta were allies in what war should be destroyed and now they got together with Corcyra a. Were in a huge decision crises, aftermath of Sicilian: revolts ( proposed or of Chios Erythrae... It ; especially the part which allowed Sparta and Athens to its port Piraeus... To Sparta their city from the brink of utter defeat, and the power of Athens… there many... Greece, a small contingent of Athenian ships played a critical role in preventing a Corinthian fleet attacking...

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